In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources African, Amerindian, and European to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population.
Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F st among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry 0.
The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations". An autosomal DNA study from found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples regions lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico". The archipelagos and islands of the Caribbean were the first sites of African dispersal in the western Atlantic during the post-Columbian era.
He returned in , but did not settle. In the early 16th century, more Africans began to enter the population of the Spanish Caribbean colonies, sometimes as freedmen, but most often as enslaved servants and workers. By the midth century, slave trade from Africa to the Caribbean was so profitable that the Englishmen Francis Drake and John Hawkins engaged in piracy and violated Spanish colonial laws, in order to forcibly transport approximately enslaved people from Sierra Leone to Hispaniola Haiti and Dominican Republic. During the 17th and 18th centuries, European colonialism in the Caribbean became increasingly reliant on plantation slavery, so that, by the end of the 18th century, on many islands, enslaved Afro-Caribbeans far outnumbered their European masters.
Beginning in the late 18th century, harsh conditions, constant inter-imperial warfare, and growing human rights goals resulted in the Haitian Revolution in the French colony of Saint-Domingue , led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessalines. In , Haiti, with what had been an overwhelmingly black slave population and leadership, became the second nation in the Americas to win independence from a European state and create a republic.
Continuous waves of rebellion, such as the Baptist War led by Sam Sharpe in Jamaica , created the conditions for the incremental abolition of slavery in the region, with Great Britain abolishing it in Cuba under the Spanish Crown was the last island to emancipate its slaves. During the 20th century, Afro-Caribbean people began to assert their cultural, economic and political rights on the world stage. From the s, the former slave populations in the Caribbean began to win their independence from British colonial rule. They were pre-eminent in creating new cultural forms such as calypso , reggae music , and rastafarianism within the Caribbean.
Beyond the region, a new Afro-Caribbean diaspora, including such figures as Stokely Carmichael and DJ Kool Herc in the United States, was influential in the creation of the black power and hip hop movements. Influential political theorists such as Walter Rodney , Frantz Fanon and Stuart Hall contributed to anti-colonial theory and movements in Africa, as well as cultural developments in Europe. Several migration waves to the Americas, as well as relocations within the Americas, have brought people of African descent to North America.
The African-American population is concentrated in the southern states and urban areas. In the establishment of the African diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and hostile environments. In the s, people from sub-Saharan Africa , mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands , started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek employment as whalers in Massachusetts.
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This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans. The internationalism of whaling crews, including the character Daggoo , an African harpooneer, is recorded in the novel Moby-Dick. They eventually took their trade to California. Today 1. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African-American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between and People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States—50 percent have bachelor's or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native-born Americans.
The U. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self-identification. These were primarily former slaves who had escaped to British lines for promised freedom during the Revolution. Later during the antebellum years, other individual African Americans escaped to Canada, mostly to locations in Southwestern Ontario , via the Underground Railroad , a system supported by both blacks and whites to assist fugitive slaves. After achieving independence, northern states in the U. Black immigration to Canada in the twentieth century consisted mostly of Caribbean descent.
Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as "West Indian Canadian", "Caribbean Canadian" or more rarely "Afro-Caribbean Canadian", but there remains no widely used alternative to "Black Canadian" which is considered inclusive of the African, Afro-Caribbean, and African-American black communities in Canada. At an intermediate level, in South America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population.
In places that imported relatively few slaves like Chile , few if any are considered "black" today. However, in places like Brazil and the Dominican Republic, blackness is performed in more taboo ways than it is in, say, the United States. The idea behind Trey Ellis Cultural Mulatto comes into play as there are blurred lines between what is considered as black.
In Peru , the African population was very mixed with the other white, Indian and mestizo population; so someone is identified as negro if he or she has visible African features. Some mestizos and whites have a degree of African admixture. In Colombia , the African slaves were first brought to work in the gold mines of the Department of Antioquia. After this was no longer a profitable business, these slaves slowly moved to the Pacific coast, where they have remained unmixed with the white or Indian population until today.
Mixture with white population happened mainly in the Caribbean coast, which is a mestizo area until today. There was also a greater mixture in the south-western departments of Cauca and Valle del Cauca. In these mestizo areas the African culture has had a great influence. Some European countries make it illegal to collect demographic census information based on ethnicity or ancestry e. France , but some others do query along racial lines e. Of 42 countries surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in , it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity.
They live mostly in urban areas in England. This number is difficult to estimate because the French census does not use race as a category for ideological reasons. There are an estimated , black people in the Netherlands and the Dutch Antilles. Many Afro-Dutch people reside in the Netherlands. As of , there were approximately , Afro-Germans not including those of mixed ethnicity. This number is difficult to estimate because the German census does not use race as a category.
As of , there were 1,, Afro-Spaniards. They mainly live in the regions of Andalusia , Catalonia , Madrid and the Canaries. Some blacks of unknown origin once inhabited southern Abkhazia ; today, they have been assimilated into the Abkhaz population. Around , people of african descendants are living in Romania. The first blacks in Russia were the result of the slave trade of the Ottoman Empire  and their descendants still live on the coasts of the Black Sea.
During the s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts. Afro Turks are people of Zanj Bantu descent in Turkey. Like the Afro-Abkhazians , they trace their origin to the Ottoman slave trade. There are a number of communities in South Asia that are descended from African slaves, traders or soldiers.
The Mauritian creole people are the descendants of African slaves similar to those in the Americas. Some Pan-Africanists also consider other peoples as diasporic African peoples. These groups include, among others, Negritos , such as in the case of the peoples of the Malay Peninsula Orang Asli ;  New Guinea Papuans ;  Andamanese ; certain peoples of the Indian subcontinent ,   and the aboriginal peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia.
Although fragmented and separated by land and water, the African Diaspora maintains connection through the use of music. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. People descending from native sub-Saharan Africans living outside Africa. This article is about emigration from Africa in historic times. For prehistoric human migration, see recent African origin of modern humans. For recent migration, see emigration from Africa.
See also: Atlantic slave trade and Arab slave trade. Main article: African diaspora in the Americas. Main article: Afro-Caribbean. Main article: African Americans. Main article: Black Canadians. See also: Afro-European. Main article: Black British. See also: Blacks in France. See also: Afro-Dutch. See also: Afro-Germans. See also: Afro-Spaniard. Main article: Afro-Abkhazians. Main article: Afro-Romanian. Main article: Afro-Russians.
Main article: Afro-Turks. African Development Bank. May 30, January 8, The African Diaspora to the Bahamas. World Economics Journal. Bibcode : PNAS.. American Journal of Human Genetics. Retrieved April 15, Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, Censo General Retrieved June 15, Washington D.
Pioneers and trailblazers
Retrieved March 26, Office for National Statistics. October 11, Retrieved February 28, Retrieved December 9, Accessed on November 6, Glas Slavonije. Spiegel Online. Archived from the original PDF on October 19, Retrieved August 20, Total for the country. Afro-descendant population in private households by sex, according to age group, ]. In the Selma Voting Rights Movement , its Selma to Montgomery marches , and the tragic murders of two activists associated with the march, inspired President Lyndon B.
Johnson to call for the full Voting Rights Act of , which struck down barriers to black enfranchisement. In the Chicago Open Housing Movement , followed by the passage of the Fair Housing Act , was a capstone to more than a decade of major legislation during the civil rights movement.
By this time, African Americans who questioned the effectiveness of nonviolent protest had gained a greater voice. More militant black leaders, such as Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam and Eldridge Cleaver of the Black Panther Party , called for blacks to defend themselves, using violence, if necessary.
From the mids to the mids, the Black Power movement urged African Americans to look to Africa for inspiration and emphasized black solidarity, rather than integration. Politically and economically, blacks have made substantial strides in the post-civil rights era. Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson , who ran for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination in and , brought unprecedented support and leverage to blacks in politics.
There were 8, black officeholders in the United States in , showing a net increase of 7, since In there were black mayors. The 39 African-American members of Congress form the Congressional Black Caucus , which serves as a political bloc for issues relating to African Americans. The appointment of blacks to high federal offices—including General Colin Powell , Chairman of the U. Economic progress for blacks' reaching the extremes of wealth has been slow. According to Forbes richest lists, Oprah Winfrey was the richest African American of the 20th century and has been the world's only black billionaire in , , and BET founder Bob Johnson briefly joined her on the list from to before his ex-wife acquired part of his fortune; although he returned to the list in , he did not make it in With Winfrey the only African American wealthy enough to rank among America's richest people,  blacks currently comprise 0.
The dramatic political breakthrough came in the election, with the election of Barack Obama , the son of a black Kenyan father and a white American mother. He won overwhelming support from African-American voters in the Democratic primaries, even as his main opponent Hillary Clinton had the support of many black politicians. African Americans continued to support Obama throughout his term. In , he won the presidential election against candidate Mitt Romney and was re-elected as the president of the United States.
The post-civil rights era is also notable for the New Great Migration , in which millions of African Americans have returned to the South including Texas , Georgia , Florida and North Carolina , often to pursue increased economic opportunities in now-desegregated southern cities. After the Civil Rights Movement gains of the s—s, due to government neglect, unfavorable social policies, high poverty rates , changes implemented in the criminal justice system and laws, and a breakdown in traditional family units, African-American communities have been suffering from extremely high incarceration rates.
African Americans have the highest imprisonment rate of any major ethnic group in the world. The history of slavery has always been a major research topic for white scholars, but until the s they generally focused on the political and constitutional themes as debated by white politicians; they did not study the lives of the black slaves. During Reconstruction and the late 19th century, blacks became major actors in the South. The Dunning School of white scholars generally cast the blacks as pawns of white Carpetbaggers during this period, but W.
Du Bois , a black historian, and Ulrich B. Phillips , a white historian, studied the African-American experience in depth. Du Bois' study of Reconstruction provided a more objective context for evaluating its achievements and weaknesses; in addition, he did studies of contemporary black life. Phillips set the main topics of inquiry that still guide the analysis of slave economics. During the first half of the 20th century, Carter G. Woodson was the major black scholar studying and promoting the black historical experience.
Woodson insisted that the study of African descendants be scholarly sound, creative, restorative, and, most important, directly relevant to the black community. He popularized black history with a variety of innovative strategies, including Association for the Study of Negro Life outreach activities, Negro History Week now Black History Month , in February , and a popular black history magazine. Woodson democratized, legitimized, and popularized black history. Benjamin Quarles —96 had a significant impact on the teaching of African-American history.
Quarles and John Hope Franklin provided a bridge between the work of historians in historically black colleges , such as Woodson, and the black history that is now well established in mainline universities. Quarles grew up in Boston, attended Shaw University as an undergraduate, and received a graduate degree at the University of Wisconsin. He began in teaching at Morgan State College in Baltimore, where he stayed, despite a lucrative offer from Johns Hopkins University.
Quarles' books included The Negro in the American Revolution , Black Abolitionists , The Negro in the Civil War , and Lincoln and the Negro , which were narrative accounts of critical wartime episodes that focused on how blacks interacted with their white allies. Black history attempted to reverse centuries of ignorance. While black historians were not alone in advocating a new examination of slavery and racism in the United States, the study of African-American history has often been a political and scholarly struggle to change assumptions.
One of the foremost assumptions was that slaves were passive and did not rebel. A series of historians transformed the image of African Americans, revealing a much richer and complex experience. Historians such as Leon F. Litwack showed how former slaves fought to keep their families together and struggled against tremendous odds to define themselves as free people.
Others wrote of rebellions small and large. In the 21st century, black history is regarded as mainstream.
Opponents argue such curricula are dishonest, divisive, and lack academic credibility and rigor. Surveys of 11th and 12th-grade students and adults in show that American schools have given students an awareness of some famous figures in black history. Both groups were asked to name 10 famous Americans, excluding presidents. When distinguished historians were asked in to name the most prominent Americans, Parks and Tubman did not make the top From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Herbert Aptheker Lerone Bennett, Jr. Harris, Jr. Wesley Isabel Wilkerson Carter G. Woodson George G. M James Asa G. African American portal United States portal. The Root. Retrieved July 8, Incredibly, most of the 42 million members of the African-American community descend from this tiny group of less than half a million Africans.
S During the Slave Trade? Retrieved New York: Pearson Education, Inc. The Black Collegian Online. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved June 4, Chapel Hill, The Terrible Transformation. Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved June 14, Archived from the original on June 4, American Slavery, — 2nd ed. New York: Hill and Wang. Retrieved 28 August February 2, Retrieved August 28, Summer Phi Kappa Phi Forum. Archived from the original on June 10, Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved June 15, Maryland Historical Society.
Hutson, Religion and the founding of the American Republic , p. American Nineteenth Century History. Brotherly Love. Retrieved June 16, Retrieved April 12, Lapsansky-Werner, and Gary B. Stampp Oxford University Press. Blight LSU Press. Journal of Black Studies. By there were , free Blacks in the United States. About , lived in the northern states. The Journal of Negro History. Penguin academics 2 ed. Boston: Prentice Hall. As long as they don't move next door: segregation and racial conflict in American neighborhoods.
Lanham, Md. Retrieved June 17, Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society. August Journal of Southern History. Retrieved April 6, Slave religion: the "invisible institution" in the antebellum South Updated ed. Retrieved December 27, Wilson Civil War Petersburg: Confederate city in the crucible of war. A nation divided. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Heritage Matters. Miller ed. The Greenwood Press "Daily life through history" series.
Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
There Are No Successful Black Nations
Archived from the original on June 3, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Retrieved June 12, Retrieved December 11, Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Reconstruction and Its Aftermath. Retrieved December 6, Journal of American History. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on May 11, December A state historical marker erected in noted that blacks died and three whites.
For the systematic oppression and terror inflicted, see Leon F. Cottrol and Raymond T. Washington Harvard University Press, Clark, ed. Spear, Black Chicago: The making of a Negro ghetto, Labor History. Badger, The New Deal , pp. Frey and T.
Black People and Their Place in World History - MBA, Dr. Leroy Vaughn - Google книги
Seven African Americans were awarded for their work in the war. Their names were: First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker, Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. James, Jr. Thomas, and Private George Watson. Gropman, Air Force Integrates —64 MacGregor, Jr. Michigan Historical Review.
Magill, ed. Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved March 18, The Obama Presidency: Promise and Performance , pp. American Sociological Review. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved October 25, African American topics. Negro league baseball Baseball color line Black players in professional American football Black quarterbacks list African Americans in the Canadian Football League Black players in ice hockey list.
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In popular culture Martin Luther King Jr. Gullah people topics. Gullah language. African-American culture Culture of Africa. These visionary African-American activists were some of the most vocal agents for racial change. Over 25 seasons, 'The Oprah Winfrey Show' was known for leading the conversation, bringing issues to the forefront and of course, the giveaways. From hair care products to the ironing board, the creations from these African-Americans still impact your everyday life.
Emails from the secretary of housing and urban development seem to contradict his distancing from the purchase. Billionaire media giant and philanthropist Oprah Winfrey is best known for hosting her own internationally popular talk show from to From there, she launched her own television network, OWN.
Tiger Woods is a professional golfer who set an amazing career in motion in , when he became the youngest man and the first African American to win the U. Barack Obama was the 44th president of the United States, and the first African American to serve in the office. First elected to the presidency in , he won a second term in