Some are listed below:. Methods of fasting also vary widely and cover a broad spectrum. If followed strictly, the person fasting does not partake any food or water from the previous day's sunset until 48 minutes after the following day's sunrise. Fasting can also mean limiting oneself to one meal during the day, abstaining from eating certain food types or eating only certain food types. In any case, the fasting person is not supposed to eat or even touch any animal products i.
Amongst Hindus during fasting, starchy items such as Potatoes , Sago and Sweet potatoes are allowed. The other allowed food items include milk products, peanuts and fruits. Peanuts and the starchy items mentioned above originate outside India. In Shri Vidya , one is forbidden to fast because the Devi is within them, and starving would in return starve the god. The only exception in Srividya for fasting is on the anniversary of the day one's parents died. Mahabharata : Anushasana Parva Book Yudhishthira asks Bhishma , "what constitutes the highest penances?
In this connection is recited the ancient narrative of the discourse between Bhagiratha and the illustrious Brahman the Grandsire of the Creation. Bhagiratha says, The vow of fast was known to Indra. Bhagiratha says, "In my opinion, there is no penance higher than fast. Bheeshma advises Yudhishthira, "Do thou practice this vow of fasting of very superior merit that is not known to all. In section , of the same book, Yudhishthira asks Bheesma "what is the highest, most beneficial" and fruitful "of all kinds of fasts in the world".
Bheeshma says "fasting on the 12th day of the lunar month" and worship Krishna, for the whole year. Krishna is worshipped in twelve forms as Kesava, Narayana, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu, the slayer of Madhu, who covered the universe in three steps, the dwarf who beguiled Mahabali , Sridhara, Hrishikesha, Padmanabha, Damodara, Pundhariksha.
After fasting, one must feed a number of brahmans. Bheeshma says " the illustrious Vishnu, that ancient being, has himself said that there is no fast that possesses merit superior to what attach to fast of this kind. In section , of the same book, Yudhishthira says, "the disposition of observing fasts is seen in all orders of men including the very Mlechchhas What is the fruit that is earned in this world by the man that observes fasts? A person who fasts on the eight and fourteenth day of the dark fortnight "becomes freed from maladies of all kinds and possessed of great energy. Fasting for one meal every day during a lunar month gets various boons according to the month in which he fasts.
In some specific periods of time like Caturmasya or Ekadashi fasting it is said that one who fasts on these days and properly doing spiritual practice on these days like associating with devotees -sangha, chanting holy names of Hari Vishnu , Narayana , Rama , Krishna and similar shravanam, kirtanam vishno may be delivered from sins. Muslims believe that fasting is more than abstaining from food and drink. Fasting also includes abstaining from any falsehood in speech and action, abstaining from any ignorant and indecent speech, and from arguing, fighting, and having lustful thoughts.
Therefore, fasting strengthens control of impulses and helps develop good behavior. During the sacred month of Ramadan, believers strive to purify body and soul and increase their taqwa good deeds and God-consciousness. This purification of body and soul harmonizes the inner and outer spheres of an individual. Muslims aim to improve their body by reducing food intake and maintaining a healthier lifestyle. Overindulgence in food is discouraged and eating only enough to silence the pain of hunger is encouraged. Muslims believe they should be active, tending to all their commitments and never falling short of any duty.
On a moral level, believers strive to attain the most virtuous characteristics and apply them to their daily situations. They try to show compassion, generosity and mercy to others, exercise patience, and control their anger. In essence, Muslims are trying to improve what they believe to be good moral character and habits. Fasting is obligatory for every Muslim one month in the year, during Ramadan. Each day, the fast begins at dawn and ends at sunset. During this time Muslims are asked to remember those who are less fortunate than themselves as well as bringing them closer to God.
Non obligatory fasts are two days a week as well as the middle of the month, as recommended by the Prophet Muhammad. Although fasting at Ramadan is fard obligatory , exceptions are made for persons in particular circumstances:. Muslims are suggested to do sunnah fasting on particular days:. Fasting is forbidden on these days: .
Prior to undertaking a Jain fast, a person must make a vow, or a formal statement of intent. Fasting for Jews means completely abstaining from food and drink, including water. Traditionally observant Jews fast six days of the year. With the exception of Yom Kippur, fasting is never permitted on Shabbat , for the commandment of keeping Shabbat is biblically ordained and overrides the later rabbinically instituted fast days.
The optional minor fast of the Tenth of Tevet could also override the Shabbat, but the current calendar system prevents this from ever occurring. Yom Kippur is considered to be the most important day of the Jewish year-cycle and fasting as a means of repentance is expected of every Jewish man or woman above the age of bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah respectively. This is the only fast day mentioned in the Torah Leviticus It is so important to fast on this day, that only those who would be put in mortal danger by fasting are exempt, such as the ill or frail endangering a life is against a core principle of Judaism.
Those that do eat on this day are encouraged to eat as little as possible at a time and to avoid a full meal. For some, fasting on Yom Kippur is considered more important than the prayers of this holy day. If one fasts, even if one is at home in bed, one is considered as having participated in the full religious service. The second major day of fasting is Tisha B'Av , the day approximately years ago on which the Babylonians destroyed the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem , as well as on which the Romans destroyed the second Holy Temple in Jerusalem about years ago, and later after the Bar Kokhba revolt when the Jews were banished from Jerusalem, the day of Tisha B'Av was the one allowed exception.
Tisha B'Av ends a three-week mourning period beginning with the fast of the 17th of Tammuz. This is also the day when observant Jews remember the many tragedies which have befallen the Jewish people, including the Holocaust. Tisha B'Av and Yom Kippur are the major fasts and are observed from sunset to the following day's dusk.
The remaining four fasts are considered minor and optional fasting is only observed from sunrise to dusk. There are other minor customary fast days, but these are not universally observed, and they include:. It is an Ashkenazic tradition for a bride and groom to fast on their wedding day before the ceremony as the day represents a personal Yom Kippur.
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In some congregations, repentance prayers that are said on Yom Kippur service are included by the bride and groom in their private prayers before the wedding ceremony. Aside from these official days of fasting, Jews may take upon themselves personal or communal fasts, often to seek repentance in the face of tragedy or some impending calamity. For example, a fast is sometimes observed if a sefer torah is dropped. The length of the fast varies, and some Jews will reduce the length of the fast through tzedakah , or charitable acts.
Mondays and Thursdays are considered especially auspicious days for fasting. Traditionally, one also fasted upon awakening from an unexpected bad dream although this tradition is rarely kept nowadays. In the time of the Talmud, drought seems to have been a particularly frequent inspiration for fasts. In modern times as well the Israeli Chief Rabbinate has occasionally declared fasts in periods of drought.
Sikhism does not promote fasting except for medical reasons. The Sikh Gurus discourage the devotee from engaging in this ritual as it "brings no spiritual benefit to the person". The Sikh holy Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib tell us: "Fasting, daily rituals, and austere self-discipline — those who keep the practice of these, are rewarded with less than a shell. Human mind requires wisdom, which can be achieved by contemplating on word's and evaluating it, torturing body is of no use: "He does not eat food; he tortures his body. Without the Guru's wisdom, he is not satisfied.
If you keep fast, then do it a way so that you adopt the compassion, well being and ask for good will of everyone. In this way, your fast will be successful. Serve God who alone is your Savior instead indulge into ritual, he is only one who will save you every where: "I do not keep fasts, nor do I observe the month of Ramadaan. I serve only the One, who will protect me in the end. If you keep fast, to count everyday pledge yourself you will act honest, sincere, controls your desires, mediate.
This is a way how you make yourself free of five thieves: "On the ninth day naomi of the month, make a vow to speak the Truth, and your sexual desire, anger and desire shall be eaten up. On the tenth day, regulate your ten doors; on the eleventh day, know that the Lord is One. On the twelfth day, the five thieves are subdued, and then, O Nanak, the mind is pleased and appeased. Observe such a fast as this, O Pandit, O religious scholar; of what use are all the other teachings? Goal of Human is to meet the Lord-groom, so Guru Sahib Ji says: "One who discards this grain, is practicing hypocrisy.
She is neither a happy soul-bride, nor a widow. Those who claim in this world that they live on milk alone, secretly eat whole loads of food. Forsaking this grain, one does not meet the Lord of the World. Without the Guru's word in the company of Saints one does not get refuge no matter how good one looks. Chinese interpretations of avoiding gu "grains; cereals" have varied historically; meanings range from not eating particular foodstuffs such as food grain , Five Cereals China , or staple food to not eating anything such as inedia , breatharianism , or aerophagia.
In Yoga principle, it is recommended that one maintains a spiritual fast on a particular day each week Monday or Thursday. A fast should also be maintained on the full moon day of each month. It is essential on the spiritual fasting day not only to abstain from meals, but also to spend the whole day with a positive, spiritual attitude. On the fasting day, intake of solid food is avoided, with water taken as needed.
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Japan has used fasting as punishment for meat consumption. Consumption of domesticated animals was banned by Emperor Tenmu in A. According to the Engishiki , in the Heian Period , fasts began to be used as punishment for the Buddhist sin of meat consumption, initially for 3 days. Eating meat other than seafood defined here simply as "meat" was seen by Buddhist elite as a kind of spiritually corrupted practice.
By the Kamakura Period , much stricter enforcement and punishments began, with an order from Ise Shrine a fast for days for eating wild or domestic animals as defined above, anyone who ate with someone who ate "meat" were required to fast for 21 days, and anyone who ate with someone who ate with someone who consumed "meat" was required to fast for 7 days. Although practitioners of alternative medicine promote " cleansing the body " through fasting,  the concept is quackery with no scientific basis for its rationale or efficacy.
During the early 20th century, fasting was promoted by alternative health writers such as Hereward Carrington , Edward H. Linda Hazzard a notable quack doctor put her patients on such strict fasts that some of them died of starvation. She was responsible for the death of more than 40 patients under her care. In , Upton Sinclair authored The Fasting Cure , which made sensational claims of fasting curing practically all diseases, including cancer , syphilis and tuberculosis. There is no scientific evidence that prolonged fasting provides any significant health benefits.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Starvation response , Intermittent fasting , and Autophagy. See also: Preoperative fasting , Body cleansing , and Nothing by mouth. See also: Category:Food and drink appreciation.
Main article: Nineteen-Day Fast. Main article: Fasting in Buddhism. Further information: Christian dietary laws. Main article: Fasting and abstinence in the Catholic Church. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.
January Main article: Coptic abstinence. This section needs additional citations for verification. See also: Fast Sunday. See also: Vrata.
Main article: Fasting in Islam. Main article: Fasting in Jainism. Main article: Ta'anit. Main article: Bigu grain avoidance. Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 12 November American Cancer Society.
A review of the literature". Psychiatry Research. Understanding Nutrition. Cengage Learning. Retrieved 22 January Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Hunger: An Unnatural History. Basic Books. Nine Habits of Happiness. DoctorZed Publishing. Active Interest Media, Inc. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 1 August Contact the Employment Verification Office. Please check our site map , search feature, or our site navigation on the left to locate the information you seek.
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The traditional Protestant hero is a self-made man. In these boom-and-crash years, the more reckless alter ego dominates. Very much so, as it turns out. And Garay preaches an unusually pure version of the gospel. Still, the particulars of both Garay and his congregation are revealing. Among Latinos the prosperity gospel has been spreading rapidly. From to , while he was building his church, Garay was also a loan officer at two different mortgage companies. To many of his parishioners, Garay was not just a spiritual adviser, but a financial one as well.
Garay grew up watching Roberts on television and considers him a hero; he hopes to send all three of his children to Oral Roberts University , in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Even as thy soul prospereth. Eventually, Roberts retreated into a life that revolved around private jets and country clubs. We all remember Tammy Faye Bakker and her mascara tears , along with her husband, Jim, and his various scandals. They took their place in a procession of slick, showy faith healers on Christian television who ultimately succumbed to earthly temptation. But since that time, the movement has made itself over, moving out of the fringe and into the upwardly mobile megachurch class.
In the past decade, it has produced about a dozen celebrity pastors, who show up at White House events, on secular radio, and as guests on major TV talk shows. Kirbyjon Caldwell , a Methodist megapastor in Houston and a purveyor of the prosperity gospel, gave the benediction at both of George W.
Instead of shiny robes or gaudy jewelry, these preachers wear Italian suits and modest wedding bands. Instead of screaming and sweating, they smile broadly and speak in soothing, therapeutic terms. But their message is essentially the same. Few, if any, of these churches have prosperity in their title or mission statement, but Bowler has analyzed their sermons and teachings. In second-tier churches—those with about 5, members—the prosperity gospel dominates. Overall, Bowler classifies 50 of the largest churches in the U.
His hair is full, his teeth are bright, his suit is polished but not flashy; he looks like a guy who would more likely shake your hand than cast out your demons. The church grew quickly, as Osteen packaged himself to appeal to the broadest audience possible. In his books and sermons, Osteen quotes very little scripture, opting instead to tell uplifting personal anecdotes. He avoids controversy, and rarely appears on Christian TV.
Osteen is often derided as Christianity Lite, but he is more like Positivity Extreme. I am going forward with God. I am going to be the person he wants me to be.
Your Best Life Now , which has fueled a TV show that Osteen claims is now seen in million homes worldwide, opens with a story of a man on vacation in Hawaii. But this, of course, is an example of ungodly, negative thinking. In this story they are standing in for an average middle-class couple who set their sights on a bigger house and believed, despite all the financial evidence, that God would bestow it upon them, like a gift.
And he did. Theologically, the prosperity gospel has always infuriated many mainstream evangelical pastors. There is a word for that: baloney. I can show you millions of faithful followers of Christ who live in poverty.
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More recently, critics have begun to argue that the prosperity gospel, echoed in churches across the country, might have played a part in the economic collapse. In , in the online magazine Religion Dispatches , Jonathan Walton, a professor of religious studies at the University of California at Riverside, warned:. In , Walton was researching a book about black televangelists. Only later did I connect it to this disaster. Demographically, the growth of the prosperity gospel tracks fairly closely to the pattern of foreclosure hot spots.
Both spread in two particular kinds of communities—the exurban middle class and the urban poor. Many newer prosperity churches popped up around fringe suburban developments built in the s and s, says Walton. These are precisely the kinds of neighborhoods that have been decimated by foreclosures, according to Eric Halperin, of the Center for Responsible Lending. Zooming out a bit, Kate Bowler found that most new prosperity-gospel churches were built along the Sun Belt, particularly in California, Florida, and Arizona—all areas that were hard-hit by the mortgage crisis.
Nationally, the prosperity gospel has spread exponentially among African American and Latino congregations. This is also the other distinct pattern of foreclosures.
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Reliable data on foreclosures by race are not publicly available, but mortgages are tracked by both race and loan type, and subprime loans have tended to correspond to foreclosures. During the boom, roughly 40 percent of all loans going to Latinos nationwide were subprime loans; Latinos and African Americans were 28 percent and 37 percent more likely, respectively, to receive a higher-rate subprime loan than whites.
In June, the Supreme Court ruled that state attorneys general had the authority to sue national banks for predatory lending. Even before that ruling, at least 17 lawsuits accusing various banks of treating racial minorities unfairly were already under way. One theme emerging in these suits is how banks teamed up with pastors to win over new customers for subprime loans.
Like many subprime-loan officers, Jacobson had no bank experience before working for Wells Fargo. She had been running a small paralegal business; her co-workers had been car salespeople, or had worked in telemarketing. As a reward for good performance, the bank would sometimes send a Hummer limo to pick up Jacobson for a celebration, she said. The idea of reaching out to churches took off quickly, Jacobson recalls. The branch managers figured pastors had a lot of influence with their parishioners and could give the loan officers credibility and new customers.
Jacobson remembers a conference call where sales managers discussed the new strategy. They will be able to live the American dream!